Solve OS X Prohibited Sign Boot Issue

Recently, I used my MacBook Pro to the end of its battery life and closed it shortly before the battery died. Something must have gone wrong there because when charging and awaking it, the touchpad ceased to work and logon didn’t work. Thus I cold rebooted it and was greeted by a nasty prohibited sign.

OS X Prohibited Sign

Unfortunately, Apple’s own recommendations did not solve the issue, so here is my solution:

Boot into the recovery partition by holding cmd+R at startup and open the terminal.
then

For me this looked like:

start size index contents
0 1 PMBR
1 1 Pri GPT header
2 32 Pri GPT table
34 409606
409640 916361264 1 GPT part - FFFFFFFF-FFFF-FFFF-FFFF-FFFFFFFFFFFF
916770904 1269536 2 GPT part - 48465300-0000-11AA-AA11-00306543ECAC
918040440 136
918040576 59064320 3 GPT part - EBD0A0A2-B9E5-4433-87C0-68B6B72699C7
977104896 131
977105027 32 Sec GPT table
977105059 1 Sec GPT header

Apparently the GUID partition table got corrupted at index 1.

To fix this, first unmount the disk:

Remove the corrupt entry:

unmount the disk again:

If the partition was a normal HFS+ partition:

or for an encrypted partition as mine:

Now your partition table should be fixed. In disk utility, unlock your drive if its encrypted. Then repair the volumes and access rights as usual. For me disk utility still complains about a missing EFI Partition, but this is likely due to my refind boot loader.

Update:

After this procedure my recovery partition showed up on my desktop, you can hide it again with: